I. Reading Comprehension
If leadership, basically speaking, consists of getting things done through others, then
persuasion is one of the leader’s essential tools. Many executives have assumed that this tool is
beyond their grasp, available only to the charismatic (有魅力的) and the eloquent. Over the past
several decades, though, experimental psychologists have learned which methods reliably lead
people to compromise, dissent, or change. Their research shows that persuasion is governed by
several principles that can be taught and applied.
The first principle is that people are more likely to follow someone who is similar to them
than someone who is not. Wise managers, then, enlist peers to help make their cases. Second,
people are more willing to cooperate with those who are like them as well as those who like them.
So it’s worth the time to uncover real similarities and offer genuine praise.
Third, experiments confirm the intuitive truth that people tend to treat you the way you treat
them. It’s sound policy to do a favor before seeking one. Fourth, individuals are more likely to
keep promises they make voluntarily and explicitly. The message for managers here is to get
commitments in writing. Fifth, studies show that people really do have respect for experts. So
before they attempt to exert influence, executives should take pains to establish their own
expertise and not assume that it’s self-evident. Finally, people want more of a commodity when
it’s scarce; it follows, then, that exclusive information is more persuasive than widely available
1. Many executives think that ________.
A) they don’t have to acquire the skills of persuasion
B) they have mastered the skills of persuasion
C) it is impossible for them to handle persuasion
D) persuasion is of no use
2. The psychologists’ research shows that ________.
A) persuasion is beyond average people’s grasp
B) persuasion can be learned
C) people tend to ignore the importance of persuasion
D) people are born with the ability to persuade
3. According to the passage, people are less willing to work together with ________.
A) those who are different from them
B) their relatives and friends
C) those who like them
D) their classmates and teachers
4. The author warns the manager ________.
A) to have any promise made by others written down
B) not to break their promises
C) to make promises explicitly and willingly
D) to help people keep their promises
5. The executives can strengthen their position ________.
A) even if they don’t have any expertise
B) if they know something unknown to their subordinates
C) if they have more commodities
D) even if they don’t know how to persuade
Trade secretes cover everything that patents cover, and much more. A trade secret is
knowledge, which may include business knowledge or technical knowledge, that is kept secret for
the purpose of gaining an advantage in business over one’s competitors. Customer lists, sources of
supply of scarce material, or sources of supply with faster delivery or lower prices may be trade
secrets. Certainly, secret processes, formulas, techniques, manufacturing know-how, advertising
schemes, marketing programs, and business plans are all protectable.
There is no standard of invention to meet as there is with a patent. If the idea is new in this
context, if it is secret with respect to this particular industry or product, then it can be protected as
a trade secret. Unlike patents, trademarks, and copyrights, there is no formal procedure for
obtaining trade secret protection. Protection is established by the nature of the secret and the effort
to keep it secret.
A trade secret is protected eternally against disclosure by all those who have received it in
confidence and all who would obtain it by theft for as long as the knowledge or information is
kept secret. In contrast to patent protection, there are no statutory (法定的) requirements for
novelty or restrictions on the subject matter.
The disadvantage of trade secrets compared with patents is that there is no protection against
discovery by fair means, such as accidental disclosure and independent inventions. Many
important inventions, such as the laser and the airplane, were developed more or less
simultaneously by different persons. Trade secret protection would not permit the first inventor to
prevent the second and subsequent inventors from exploiting the invention as a patent would.
6. Compared with patents, trade secrets ________.
A) are easier to protect B) should meet certain standard of invention
C) need statutory support D) cover a larger scope
7. ________ is a trade secret.
A) M in McDonald B) An employment contract
C) A Manual of Volkswagon D) Formula
8. The protection of ________ becomes effective without any formal procedure.
A) trade secrets B) patents C) copyrights D) trademarks
9. A trade secret doesn’t have to be something ________.
A) novel B) unique C) complicated D) useful
10. Unlike patents, ________.
A) trade secrets can be obtained by others illegally
II. Vocabulary and Structure
11. Even now, World Health Organization (WHO) specialists are not completely sure that the
coronavirus (冠状病毒), which they have identified in patients, is the sole cause, and there are
many _____ features about the method of transmission.
A) intriguing B) shiny C) puzzling D) aggressive
12. In the summer Jim and I have breakfast out on the _____.
A) avenue B) cabin C) open D) patio
13. The troops were in a(n) _____ position, completely exposed to attack from the air.
A) remarkable B) grave C) vulnerable D) indispensable
14. He came back to the tent very late and _____ in as silently as he could.
A) crept B) skied C) fluttered D) wandered
15. All the paths across the park _____ at the main gate.
A) converge B) transform C) depart D) diverge
16. It is surprising such a criminal should _____ a great scholar.
A) pass for B) regard as C) single out D) boast as
17. This nation has defeated tyrants, _____ death camps and raised this lamp of liberty to every
A) overseen B) enforced C) liberated D) unsung
18. Be _____. Our country is strong. And our cause is even larger than our country. Ours is the
cause of human dignity: freedom guided by conscience, and guarded by peace.
A) diligent B) prepared C) capable D) confident
19. That story has too many gaps in it to _____.
A) make sense B) make it C) make like D) make over
20. The Bush administration says the tax cuts will give the U.S. economy and the world economy
a badly needed boost and the faster growth will help lower U.S. _____ deficits in the coming
A) tariff B) statistics C) budget D) existence
21. The development and research of TMD (Threat Missile Defence System) does not _____ the
trend of the times.
A) result in B) go with C) stand up D) head for
22. Insurance companies blame rising medical bills for high _____ costs.
A) policy B) painful C) household D) guarantee
23. Adherence to the principle of one China is the basis and _____ for peaceful reunification.
A) premise B) settlement C) commitment D) arrangement
24. J.P Morgan Canada said the spread of the SARS virus could slash up to 1.5 _____ points off
April-June growth in Canada.
A) percentage B) undergrowth C) commitment D) recovery
25. Recently I was visited by a very good friend who had just returned from a long walk in the
woods, and I asked her what she had observed. “Nothing _____,” she replied.
A) as a result B) in particular C) on balance D) at that point
26. You’ve got something in your eye – try _____ your eyes a few times.
A) orbiting B) blinking C) spraying D) diverging
27. His persistent moaning about his personal problems has been really _____ me lately.
A) bugging B) enforcing C) transforming D) compelling
28. The factory workers all star working at 8:00 a.m. and _____ at 3:00 p.m.
A) head for B) take off C) close in D) knock off
29. The U.S. House of Representatives passed a bill this month making online gambling a federal
crime. Critics of the industry say the crackdown is _____.
A) on a small scale B) at risk C) on the latch D) long overdue
30. The parents said they would on no account _____ in their only child the smallest degree of
A) authorize B) converge C) recommend D) adopt
III. Cloze (10%)
The expression “lame duck”, can be heard in almost any American town or city, especially
where people discuss politics. Most often, they use it to _31_ a politician who has come to the end
of his power – a Congressman, for example, who has a few more weeks in office and will _32_ be
out of a job.
There are a number of ideas _33_ where “lame duck” came from, _34_ the picture is clear
enough – a duck that has its wings clipped, or its web-feet injured, and can _35_ walk or waddle
like a healthy one.
The term seems to have crept into the American language some time after the _36_ war of
1861-1865. One explanation is that it came from the language of hunters who felt that it was
foolish to _37_ powder or time on a dead duck. And a lame duck – even a sitting duck – is close to
_38_ a dead duck. Another explanation, however, says that the expression came _39_ England.
There it was used to describe a man who lost all his _40_ in stocks, was cleaned out and could not
pay his debts. He could no nothing _41_ waddle off like a lame duck. And – so the story goes –
people showed _42_ mercy for the poor fellow.
But in the United States people took the phrase to describe a congressman who _43_ to get
reelected but still had a little time left in office until his successor was sworn in.
In time, the expression was used in a broader _44_, generally describing any man _45_ days
of power were coming to an end. It has often been used to describe the position of an American
president in the last two years or so of his second _46_. It is a difficult time for him, when
Congress is ready to _47_ him at every turn.
It may refuse to work with him simply because his days in the White House are numbered.
_48_ sun is setting. It is not a happy time. It is like old age coming on. And people, like animals,
are cruel to lame ducks, ready to _49_ them out. Their eyes are already turned toward the new
leader, the new man in _50_.
31. A) promote B) judge C) reward D) describe
32. A) then B) also C) thus D) already
33. A) on to B) above C) to D) as to
34. A) for B) since C) although D) once
35. A) usually B) no longer C) of course D) still
36. A) national B) word C) civil D) country
37. A) save B) waste C) utilize D) consume
38. A) be B) pretending C) being D) taming
39. A) to B) out of C) across D) from
40. A) money B) salary C) treasure D) property
41. A) else B) and C) but D) except
42. A) much B) little C) their D) some
43. A) used B) failed C) attempted D) was asked
44. A) sense B) zones C) range D) respect
45. A) when B) of which C) of how D) whose
46. A) term B) time C) substitute D) stage
47. A) identify B) lodge C) prefer D) oppose
48. A) His B) Their C) Its D) The
49. A) hold
50. A) use
1-10 CBAAB DDAAA
II. Vocabulary and Structure
CDCAA ACDAC BAAAB BADDA
DADCB CBCDA CBBAD ADACB
See the World
It is quite vital for university students to see the society. Having stayed in the ivory tower for
over ten years to learn a lot of theoretical knowledge from textbooks, the students still feel
bewildered as soon as they step out of the campus.
It is time they got to know the world outside the campus right now. fortunately, the society has
offered them various opportunities to practice what they have learned in school. They can learn to
cooperate with others and to contribute their knowledge to the society. One of my friends once
managed to find a part-time job of tutoring a girl of 8.
Through this experience, he has learned how to deal with people and how to dedicate his love
to people who are in need of it. Consequently, he can always be ready when confronted with a
chance to know the world for he has really benefited a lot from it.
Many arguments exist about the advantages and disadvantages of an exam. Some students
complain that their teachers have given them too many exams and they have little spare time
whereas teachers hold it true that some of their students do not work hard only because they do not
have frequent examinations.
The examinations can show what and how much a student has mastered. It is fairly evident
that a teacher prefers to give his students a test after he has finished teaching a unit. On the part of
a teacher, he can find how well his students have grasped in the unit learning. On the part of the
students, they can learn what aspects they fail to master and should pay more attention to later.
Therefore, examinations, if given at reasonable intervals, can benefit both the teachers and
the students. From examinations, teachers can figure out what points they have missed in teaching
and must work hard to improve and the students can also focus their concentration on their
Different books are designed for different people. Picture books are usually for babies and
children. Love stories and novels are written mainly for young people. Books with such purposes
as health and medical care are welcome to old people.
Children are not supposed to read all kind of books. Owing to a rather limited experience of
the world, they are not old enough to tell good from bad or right from wrong. It is not easy for
children to resist the temptation to commit a sex crime if they are exposed too often to the books
with much description of sex and violence.
Proper guidance is helpful to young people, especially to teenagers. Children who receive
proper instructions from parents and teachers about their spare time reading will be most likely to
live in harmony with neighbors and social values. Those who are not properly guided may
possibly be puzzled and grow up to be troublemakers.
Who Should Have the Say?
It is quite common for the parents to make all the decisions for their child in China. They
choose schools for their child. They decide on the child’s clothing, timetable and even company.
After their child’s graduation, the parents tend to pick up a job, perhaps a spouse, to some extreme,
for their child.
Having no say at home hinders a child from making way in the world. The parents cannot
stay with their child and make decisions on everything fro him all the time. The parents having all
say for their child will make him develop a passive and dependent habit, which will do him more
harm than good in their future career.
To learn to be independent is essential for every child. After graduation, a child has to be
faced with all the problems he may encounter, such as job-hunting. He will build up a family of
his own and has a baby. Therefore, giving advice to rather than making decisions for the child is
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