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2022年公共英语考试真题

编辑整理:公共英语等级考试网 发布时间:2022-11-16 10:51:28 浏览: 分享

2022年公共英语考试真题


        Part I Reading Comprehension(40points)

        Directions:There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or incomplete sentences. For each ofthem there are 4 choices marked ABC and D. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.(2x20)

        Passage 1

        It was December 25.Marie,a 13-year-old Australian girl,was happyIt was Christmas and Marie’s mother was making a veryspecial cake. She put four small coins into the cake and then baked it. The four coins were for good luck.After dinnerMarie and her familyate the cake.They found three coins in the cake and put them on the table.Where was the fourth one?It was missing, but Marie's mother didn’t notice.

        After Christmas,Marie got sick.She coughed and couldn’t speak.Marie’s parents took her to hospital. Doctors at the hospital looked her over and then said,“Weare sorry,but we can’t help her.”For 12 years,Marie didn’t speak.But like other common peopleshe grew up,got a job and got married. One day,when Marie was 25 years old,she got a sore throat.She began to cough.She coughed up something small and black. What was it?Marie didn’t know.She took it to a hospital. A doctor at the hospital said,“This is a coin!”The doctor told Marie,“I think you can speak again.”

        1.How old was Marie when she became unable to speak?

        A.She was 12. B.She was 13. C.She was 25. D. She was 26.

        

        2. Where had the missing coin been?

        A. In the cake. B. In Marie's throat. C. On the table. D. At the hospital.

        

        3. Why did Marie's mother put coins into the cake?

        A.Wish for health. B.Wish for a big fortune.

        C.Wish for bad luck. D. Wish for good luck.

        

        4. According to the passage, which one is INCORRECT?

        A. Marie’s mother made a very special cake at Easter.

        B. The fourth coin was missing

        C.After Christmas.the 13-year-old girl Marie couldn’t speak.

        D. Marie was unable to speak for 12 years.

        

        5. What can you infer from the passage?

        A. Marie lived an unusual life after she got sick.

        B. The coins in the cake brought good luck to Marie

        C.Marie couldn’t speak because of the coin.

        D. The coin looks the same as it did before.

        

        Passage 2

        Emotion is sometimes regarded as the opposite of reason, as is suggested by phrases such as“appeal to emotions rather than reason”and“don’t let your emotions take over”.Emotional reactions sometimes produce consequences or thoughts which people may later regret or disagree with,but during an emotional state,theycould not control their actions.Thus, it is generally believed that one of the most distinctive facts about human beings is a contradiction between emotionand reason.(公众号:山西职教收集整理)

        However, recent empirical studies do not suggest there is a clear distinction between reason and emotion. Indeed,anger or fear can often be thought of as an instinctive response to observed facts. The human mind possesses many possible reactions to the external world.Those reactions can lie on a continuum, with some of them involving the extreme of pure intellectual logic, which is often called“cold”, and others involving the extreme of pure emotion not related to logical agreement which is called“the heat of passion”.The relation between logic and emotion merits careful study. Passion,emotion,or feeling can reinforce an argument,even one based primarily on reason. This is especially true in religion or ideology,which frequently demands anall-or-nothing rejection or acceptance. In such areas of thought,human beings have to adopt a comprehensive view partly backed by empirical argument and partly by feeling and passion.Moreover several researchers have suggested that typically there is no“pure”decision or thought; that is, no thought is based“purely”on intellectual logic or“purely”on emotion-most decisions are founded on a mixture of both.

        6. What result may come from emotional reactions?

        A. Sometimes people may regret later.

        B. Often people may be in despair later.

        C.Always people accept the consequence later.

        D. Mostly people may feel satisfied with their emotional reactions.

        

        7.Why does the writer mention the phrase“appeal to emotions rather than reason”?

        A. To help explain why people can not control their actions.

        B.To show that emotion is more important than reason.

        C.To indicate that emotional reaction will create bad effects.

        D. To help explain the view just mentioned above.

        

        8. Which of the following does not belong to emotion?

        A.Anger. B. Fear. C.Logic. D. Passion.

        

        9. What does the writer mean by“cold”?

        A.Thinking things extremely rationally.

        B.Thinking things extremely emotionally.

        C. Involving the pure happiness.

        D. Involving the pure fear.

        

        10. What is the conclusion of the passage?

        A. Emotion is the opposite of reason.

        B.The most distinctive fact about human beings is a contradiction between emotion and reason

        C. Most decisions are founded on a mixture of emotion and reason.

        D.Passion,emotion,or feeling can not reinforce an argumenteven one based primarilyon reason.

        

        Passage 3

        China’s birth rate has been falling since 2016-for example12 million new births were recorded in 2020, but the number is expected to drop below 10 million in 2021 despite a series of pronatalist policies taken by the government.And although the two-child policy introduced in 2016 caused an uptick in the number of newbornsit failed to reverse the falling birth rate trend.

        Can the three-child policy introduced last year succeed where earlier favorable family planning policies failed?

        The picture doesn’t look good,though.China’s birth rate in 2020 declined to 1. 3 percent, far lower than the replacement rate of 2.1 according to the seventh national census results. Since the population of women of childbearing age in China has reached its peak, it will continue to decline.

        From the perspective of economics,having children is essentially an economic decision. The costs and benefits of having a child play a key role in such families’decision.

        As for benefits,children carry on the family name and can help strengthen the bond between a man and a woman. And having children gives an assurance to parents that they will have someone to take care of them when they get old.

        When it comes to costs,women have to endure physical and mental stress to give birth and bring up children.Childbirth is painful and,in extreme cases,could be fatal.Alsonew mothers in general,find it difficult to adjust family and work life.Plushaving children also means additional expenses and in some cases cutting costs to provide good education for the children, as well as dedicating huge amounts of time to bringing them up.

        Apparently,people tend to have more children if there are more benefits and fewer children if the costs outweigh the benefits. That most couples today prefer to have just one child means there are more costs than benefits of having more children.

        Besides,with the improvement of the pension system in Chinaelderly people today depend less on their offspring, and thanks to the continuous increase in the number of well-educated and financially independent women,quite a few young women consider marriage more of an option than a necessity. These factors have also played a role in the decline in the birth rate.

        Moreoverbecause of the shortage of quality education and good schools parents have to spend large amounts of money and time to ensure their children get admitted to good schools and colleges so they can get quality education, leading to frequent arguments and conflicts in families, and prompting many couples not to have a second,let alone a third,child.The stress and tension of parents infect children, And stress and unhappiness could undermine the mental health of a child.

        To address these problems,especially to reduce the education burden of students, and by default their parents,the government introduced some policies,including the“double reduction’ policy, recently.

        High housing prices are also discouraging many young couples from having children. Cities and towns where housing prices are relatively low usually have higher fertility rates around the world.

        More importantly,in most cases,women still shoulder most of the responsibilities of bringing up a child, and experts and surveys say women usually find themselves at a disadvantage at the workplace after giving birth.

        In Denmark, an advanced economy,for example,working mothers get lower salaries compared with men even 20 years after giving birth despite having the same education level and years of experience. While a longer paid maternity leave may protect women from being dismissed or demoted,such women are still ignored when it comes to promotion and increments.In fact,studies show that a longer paid maternity leave has little effect on boosting the fertility rate if women are more concerned about their career prospects.

        But there is no need to be over-pessimistic.Children still play an indispensable role in a family, and despite the improving social services, many grown-up children still take care of their aged parents.

        Apart from improving education quality and reining in housing prices,however,the governmentshould also take measures to meet the real needs of working mothersin order to boost the birth rate.For instance,establishing more day childcare centers can free working mothers of the responsibility of taking care of children by neglecting their jobs.

        In East Asia,the low fertility rate is largely attributed to women’s lower position in the family. Many women are tired of rushing back and forth between work and housework, while men are rarely extending a helping hand. So they have decided not to marry,and if they marry, not to have children. Thus men have to shoulder their part of the social and familial responsibilities to promote gender equality.It will not only promote domestic harmony but also help increase the fertility rate.(公众号:山西职教收集整理)

        11. What does the underlined word“uptick” in Paragraph one mean?

        A.A small increase. B.A small decrease.

        C. A great increase. D. A great decrease.

        

        12.Which of the following is NOT the benefit of having a child in a family?

        A. Carrying on the family name.

        B. Helping strengthen the bond between a man and a woman.

        C. Giving an assurance to parents.

        D. Preventing parents from getting old.

        

        13. Why do women hesitate to give birth?

        A. Because they have no time to bring up children

        B. Because they don’t like children.

        C. Because they have to dedicate more time and money, as well as endure physical andmental stress.

        D. Because they are afraid that there is no good education for the children

        

        14. What may women encounter in the workplace after giving birth?

        A. They will get lower salaries. B. They will be dismissed.

        C. They will get promotion. D. They will get increments.

        15. If men shoulder their part of the social and familial responsibilities, which is likely tohappen?

        A.Helping decrease the fertility rate. B.Causing domestic disharmony.

        C.Promoting the fertility rate.D.Lowering women’s position.

        

        Passage 4

        With the coming of the Internet,online communities have figured out a way to generate profit from the sharing of those underused property. Using websites and social media groups that facilitate the buying and selling of second-hand goods, it is now easier than ever for peer-to-peer sharing activities to take place. And this is known as the sharing economy.

        These popular online platforms are providing a chance for people to make a quick fortune.To give an example,busy parents previously might not have bothered with setting up a stall at the local market to sell their children’s old equipment,but with online marketplaces,parents are now able to sell on those hardly worn baby clothes that their children have outgrown so as to put some cash back into their pockets.

        Businesses have also caught on to the profitability of the sharing economy and are seeking to gain from making use of those underutilized resources. Companies like Airbnb act as a middleman for people to cash in on their unused rooms and houses and let them out as profitable accommodation. Another example is Uber,which encourages people to use their own personal cars as taxis to make some extra cash in their free time.

        This move towards a sharing economy is not without criticisms.Unlike businesses,unregulated individuals do not have to follow certain regulations and this can lead to poorer and inconsistent quality of goods and services and a higher risk of fraud.Nevertheless in the consumerist society we live in today,the increased opportunities to sell on our unwanted and underused goods can lead to a lesser impact on our environment.

        16. Why can people now sell things more easily?

        A. Because people nowadays buy more things.

        B. Because businesses want to buy the things they don’t use.

        C. Because there are now more market stalls.

        D. Because there are now online platforms to do business.

        

        17.Which of the following is something that we might underutilize?

        A. A thick coat in a cold country.

        B.Clothes our babies don’t or can’t wear any more.

        C.The latest smart phone.

        D. The new cupboard in our house.

        

        18. Why do people get involved in the sharing economy?

        A. Because they want to set up a stall.

        B. Because they want to recycle the underused things

        C.Because they want to make a fortune.

        D. Because they want to protect the environment.

        

        19. It might cause problems when unregulated individuals sell things to others because____

        A. what they sell might be of a lower quality

        B. they have to follow certain regulations

        C. they don't have a business license

        D. they like to criticize their buyers

        20. What might be a suitable title for this article?

        A.The Consumerist Society

        B. Parents Who Need Money

        C. The Rise of the Sharing Economy

        D.Why We Buy Things We Don't Need

        

        Part Ⅱ Cloze(20 points)

        Directions:There are 20 blanks in the following passage.For each ofthem there are 4 choices marked A,B,C and D. You should choose the one that best fits into the passage and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.(1x20)

        In the early 1990s,an Australian friend and I travelled to Lijiang for a summer vacation. We hired a local21Wang who was a gentleman with22manners. It was so hot that we took delight in drinking cool23. We politely offered Wang but he24We said nothing and drank our beer, while poor Wang watched.One day Wang must have been desperate because he25the first offer.Only26 I saw that Wang in fact liked beer very much,did it then occur to me to ask him27maybe in China it was not polite to accept the28offer.

        Several months ago,a friend of mine invited a young Chinese ladyhome for dinner.The young lady had just29in America for a work-study year.30 her hosts knew that Chinese have a31sense of politeness in social situations,theyexpected to have to32the young ladyrepeatedly to help herself33the dinner dishes. They had been told that,in China,34of proffered food is considered polite and further refusal is even more polite.Some intercultural trainers advised western hosts to35three times so that Chinese guests can politely refuse twice and that be persuaded to accept the36time.37,the young lady’s first words as she came through the door were,“Oh,I’m starving. I hope you don’t mind38I eat a lot!”Contrary to the American hosts’39, she didn’t hesitate at all40herself to the food and didn’t need to be urged.(公众号:山西职教收集整理)

        21. A.offer B.policeman C. guide D. worker

        

        22. A.poor B.adequate C. good D. no

        

        23. A.water B.beer C. sodas D. juice

        

        24.A.accepted B. refused C. opposed D. agreed

        

        25. A.accepted B. refused C. to accept D. to refuse

        

        26. A.that B. if C. when D. since

        

        27. A.it B. whether C. whatever D.to

        

        28. A.first B. second C. third D.last

        

        29. A.came B. reached C.got D. arrived

        

        30. A.But B.Since C.If D. Hence

        

        31.A.strong B.no C. weak D. many

        

        32. A.enforce B. argue               C. help D. urge

        

        33. A. at B.on C. to D. with

        

        34. A.require B. reuse C. record D. refusal

        

        35.A.give B. offer C. help D. tell

        

        36. A.first B. second C. third D. only

        

        37. A. In a word B.However C. In addition D. Therefore

        

        38. A.that B. whether C. if D. so

        

        39. A.imagination B. expectation C. impression D.illusion

        

        40. A.help B.helping C. to help D. helped

        

        Part I True or False(10 points)

        Directions:Read the passage and then decide whether the following statements are True or False. You should mark A or B on the Answer Sheet,A for True and B for False.(2x5)

        Have you ever felt your mind getting confused after a sleepless night and you couldn’t come up with an original thought no matter how hard you tried?

        You were probably right if you thought that was caused by a lack of sleep.Dr.Home,a sleep researcher in England,studied 24 college students.One group got their normal eight hours of sleep. The other group didn’t get any sleep at all-they stayed awake all night.The next day,Dr.Home tested the students. He asked them questions that required creative and original thinking.One of the questions was“How many uses can a box be put to?”

        The results? The wide-awake students did well on the tests.The tired students did poorly.Research has already shown that tired people can do okayon tests of routine thinking,like simple addition. But Dr. Home tested creative thinking only.

        As part of his study,he offered an amount of money as a reward to the tired students if they did well. But even this encouragement wasn’t enough to help the students overcome their tiredness. They still did poorly. Dr.Home believes that the part of the brain where thinking takes place may get worn out during waking hours. Sleep may help to repair the brain overnight.Without any sleep he emphasizes,“even if you think harder, you cannot do better.”

        This study gives people something to think about,especially people like hospital workers and airplane pilots,who must stay awake all night and then make emergency decisions.

        ()41.According to the passage,the confusion of your mind is possibly due to the lack ofsleep.

        

        ()42.Tired people can do everything EXCEPT telling other people their names.

        

        ()43.The purpose of Dr.Home to offer a lot of money to the sleepy students is to encouragethem to do better.

        

        ()44.Sleep might help people repair the brain which may get worn out during waking hours.

        

        ()45.Students might be better instructed in their homework after reading this passage.

        

        Part IV Translation(40 points) Section A

        Directions:There are 5 sentences in this part. For each ofthem there are 4 choices marked AB.C and D. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.(2x5)

        46. He accepted the terms without the least hesitation.

        A.他毫不犹豫地接受了这些条款。

        B.他毫不犹豫地拒绝了这些条款。

        C.他犹豫了一下,然后拒绝了这些条款。

        D.他犹豫了一下,然后接受了这些条款。

        

        47. The film we saw last night was nothing but interesting.

        A.昨天晚上看的电影很有趣。

        B.对昨天晚上看的电影很感兴趣。

        C.我们昨天晚上看的那部电影的确有趣。

        D.我们昨天晚上看了一部不太有趣的电影。

        

        48. There is no such thing as a stupid question when you’re starting a job.

        A.在你开始一份工作时,提什么问题都会让人觉得愚蠢。

        B.在你开始一份工作时,没有什么问题是愚蠢的。

        C.在你开始一份工作时,没有什么事情像一个愚蠢的问题。

        D.在你开始一份工作时,没有如此愚蠢的一个问题。

        

        49. Every time he receives tourists,he introduces the local culture and tells them to protect theforest.

        A.每当他接待游客,他都会引进当地的文化,而且还会告诉他们要保护森林。

        B.无论何时他接待游客,他都会介绍当地的文化,而且还会告诉他们要保护森林。

        C.无论何时接待游客,他都会引进文化,而且还会告诉他们要保护森林。

        D.每当他接待游客,他都会介绍当地的文化,而且还会告诉他们要保护森林。

        

        50.Flames are carried on foot by runners,but other modes have also been used.

        A.火炬手徒步传递圣火,但也将使用其他交通工具。

        B.跑步者通过徒步的方式完成圣火传递,但也将使用其他的交通工具。

        C.火炬手通过徒步的方式传递圣火,但也用了其他的交通工具。

        D.跑步者徒步传递圣火,但也用了其他的交通工具。

        

        Section B

        Directions:Choose the appropriate translation to fill in each blank to make the following paragraph meaningful and write the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.(3x5)

        汉服是中国传统服饰之一。“汉服”-词是近年来被网友们发明出来的。今天,穿汉服复兴文化”已变得越来越流行,特别是在年轻的一代中。许多支持者认为汉服的复兴给他们带来了一种民族认同感。汉服甚至成为中国汉服爱好者的日常服饰。他们为中国人民拥有如此美丽的传统服装感到骄傲。穿汉服就好比是穿了一个文化符号。

        Hanfu is one of the traditional types of Chinese clothing.Theterm“Hanfu”51 in recent years by netizens. Nowadays,“wearing Hanfu costumes and reviving the culture”has become52 popular,especiallyamong53Manysupporters believe that the renaissance of Hanfu brings them54Hanfu even becomes the daily costume of the Hanfu enthusiasts in China. They are proud that Chinese people have such beautiful55.Wearing Hanfu can be compared with wearing a cultural icon.

        A. the young person B. especially C. was discovered

        D. the younger generation E. was coined F.traditional clothing

        G. feeling of recognition H.increasingly I. traditional dress

        J. a sense of national identity

        

        Section C

        Directions:Translate the following sentences into English and write your answers on the Answer Sheet.(3x5)

        56.请在明天早上8点开车去接李教授。

        57.他的考试成绩非常令人失望。

        58.你更喜欢哪一种,中餐还是西餐?

        59.在这个会议上,政府提倡男女就业机会平等。

        60.有几个孩子正在游泳池里游泳。

        

        Part V Error Correction(20 points)

        Directions:There are 10 sentences in this part. Each sentence has 4 underlined parts marked A,B,C and D. You are required to identify the incorrect part,and then write the corresponding letter and the correct answer on the Answer Sheet.(2x10)

        61. Don’t be afraid of talking with someone who is different with you.

        A B C D

        62. This is the most interesting book which I have ever read.

        A B C    D

        63.If I am you,I wouldn’t be wasting much time chatting on the Internet.

        AB                        C           D

        64. What is the name of the town in that you live?

        A     B      C          D

        65. I look forward to see you at your office on July 18th.

        A      B          C     D

        66. Now Tom lives in a small apartment and his dog,getting by on Social Security

        A       B                C          D

        67. China has thousands of islands,the largest of them is Taiwan.

        A                  B       C  D

        68. There are many reports of people feel lonely when they quit social media.

        A                 B       C                 D

        69.The lion dance perform on Tuesday is to celebrate the last day of Chinese New Year

        A   B    C             D

        70. My first impressions of John was that he was smart and not bad-looking.

        A                B    C               D

        Part Ⅵ Writing(20 points)

        Directions:For this part, you are required to write a composition based on the material below. You should write at least 120 words.

        请阅读提炼观点,实际举例论证,题目自拟。

        Success is the ability to go from failure to failure without losing enthusiasm. J.K.Rowling,the author of the famous Harry Potter novels,wrote her books during her work breaks.Tapping into her vivid imagination, she created a world that sold more than 500 million books and became hit movies. She is regarded as one of the most successful fiction authors in history,with an estimated net worth of $650 million.However, her success didn’t come easy.She was rejected by publishers for dozens of times before one took a chance on her.

        

        答案及精析

        Part I Reading Comprehension

        Passage 1

        1.[考点] 推理判断题

        【精析】B题干大意是:Marie是在几岁时变得不能说话了?根据第一段第二句“Marie,a 13-year old Australian girl, was happy.”和第二段第一、二句“After Christmas,Marie got sick. She coughed and couldn’t speak.”可知,13岁的澳大利亚女孩儿 Marie 在圣诞节后生病了,她咳嗽并且说不出话。由此可推知,Marie是在13岁时变得不能说话了。故选B。

        2.[考点] 推理判断题

        【精析】B题干大意是:那枚丢失的硬币一直以来在哪里?根据第二段倒数第六句“She coughed up something small and black.”和第二段倒数第二句“A doctor at the hospital said,This is a coin!”可知,她咳出一个黑色的小东西,医院的一位医生说:“这是一枚硬币。”由此可推知,硬币一直在Marie的咙里。故选 B。

        3.[考点] 事实细节题

        【精析】 D题干大意是:为什么Marie的妈妈把硬币放进蛋糕里?根据第一段第四五句Sheput four small coins into the cake and then baked it.The four coins were for good luck.”可知,Marie的妈妈在蛋糕里放硬币是为了祈求好运。故选 D

        4.[考点] 事实细节题

        【精析】A题干大意是:根据文章,哪一项是不正确的?根据第一段第三句“Itwas Christmas and Marie’s mother was making a very special cake.”可知,Marie的妈妈是在圣诞节而不是复活节做了一个特别的蛋糕,所以A项不正确;根据第一段最后两句“Where was the fourth one? It was missing, but Marie’s mother didn't notice.”可知,第四枚硬币找不到了,所以B项正确;根据第二段第一、二句“After Christmas,Marie got sick. She coughed and couldn’t speak."可知,圣诞节之后,Marie生病了,她咳嗽并且不能说话了,所以C项正确;根据第二段第五句“For 12 years,Marie didn’t speak.”可知 Marie 有 12 年不说话,所以 D项正确。故选 A。

        5.[考点]推理判断题

        【精析】C 题干大意是:你从文章中可以推断出什么?通读全文可知,13岁的Marie在圣诞节吃了包含硬币的蛋糕(其中一个硬币找不到了),之后便生病不能说话了,直到25岁时因为咽喉痛而将硬币咳出来,医生才告诉她又能说话了。由此可推知,这个女孩儿在13岁时因为误食了蛋糕中的硬币而不能说话。故选C。

        Passage 2

        6.[考点] 事实细节题

        【精析】A题干大意是:情绪反应可能会带来什么样的后果?根据第一段第二句“Emotional reactions sometimes produce consequences or thoughts which people may later regret or disagree with, but during an emotional state, they could not control their actions.”可知,情绪反应有时会产生人们之后可能会后悔或不赞成的后果或想法,但在情绪状态下,他们无法控制自己的行为,即情绪反应有时可能会带来人们之后可能会后悔的后果。故选A。

        7.[考点] 推理判断题

        【精析】D题干大意是:作者为什么提到“appeal toemotions rather than reason”这句习语?根据第一段第一句“Emotion is sometimes regarded as the opposite of reason, as is suggested by phrases such as appeal to emotions rather than reason’and ‘don’t let your emotions take over’.”可知,情绪有时被认为是理性的对立面,正如“诉诸情感而非理性”和“不要让你的情绪占上风”等习语所暗示的那样。由此可推知,作者提到这句习语是为了进一步解释"情绪有时被认为是理性的对立面"这一观点。故选D。

        8.[考点] 推理判断题

        【精析】C题干大意是:下列哪一项不属于情绪?根据第一段第一句“Emotion is sometimes regarded as the opposite of reason...”可知,情绪有时被认为是理性的对立面,而逻辑(logic)常被看作是理性的,根据常识可推知,C项不属于情绪。根据第二段第二句“Indeed, anger or fear can often be thought of as an instinctive response to observed facts.”和第二段第四句”..and others involving the extreme of pure emotion not related to logical agreement, which is called ‘the heat of passion’,”可知,anger(愤怒) fear(害怕),passion(强烈情感)均属于情绪。故选 C。

        9.[考点] 词语理解题

        【精析】A 题干大意是:作者提到“cold”是什么意思?根据第二段第四句“Those reactions can lie on a continuum,with some of them involving the extreme of pure intellectual logic, which is often called ‘cold’,and others involving the extreme of pure emotion not related to logical agreement, which is called ‘the heat of passion’.”可知,这些反应可以是连续的,其中一些涉及极端的纯理性逻辑,这通常被称“冷静”,另一些沙及极端的纯情绪,与辑一关,称为强烈的情感”。由此可推知,cold意“冷静”,A项(极度理性地思考事情)与其意思最为接近。故选A。

        10.[考点]主旨大意题

        【精析】C 题干大意是:这篇文章的结论是什么?读全文可知,文章最后一句“Moreover,sever researchers have suggested that typically there is no ‘pure’ decision or thought; that is. no thought is based ‘purely’ on intellectual logic or ‘purely’ on emotion-most decisions are founded on a mixture of both.”闸述了关于情绪和理性的结论:通常不存在“纯粹的”决定或想法;也就是说,没有任何思想是“纯粹”基于理性逻辑或“纯粹”基于情绪的——大多数决策都是基于两者的混合。故选 C。

        Passage 3

        11.[考点] 词语理解题

        【精析】A题干大意是:第一段中画线单词“uptick”是什么意思?根据第一段最后一句“And although the two-child policy introduced in 2016 caused an uptick in the number of newborns. it failed to reverse the falling birth rate trend.”可知,尽管2016年推出的二孩政策导致新生儿数量小幅增加,但未能扭转出生率下降的趋势。由此可推知,uptick应与falling(下降)表达的意思相反,且结合句中的 failed to reverse(未能扭转)可知,uptick意为“小幅增加”,A项(小幅增加)与其意思相同。故选A。(公众号:山西职教收集整理)

        12.[考点] 事实细节题

        【精析】D 题干大意是:下列哪一项不是家庭中有孩子的好处?根据第五段内容可知,孩子可以延续家族的姓氏,并有助于加强男女之间的关系,有了孩子,父母就有了一个保证,当他们老了,会有人来照顾他们。因此,A、B、C三项均为家庭中有孩子的好处,D项(防止父母变老)在文中并未提及。故选 D。

        13.[考点] 事实细节题

        【精析】C题干大意是:为什么女性会犹豫要不要生孩子?根据第六段第一句“When it comes to costs, women have to endure physical and mental stress to give birth and bring up children.”和第六段最后一句“Plus,having children also means additional expenses.….as well as dedicating huge amounts of time to bringing them up.”可知,说到成本,女性必须承受生育和抚养孩子的身体和精神压力,生孩子也意味着额外的开支以及削减成本来为孩子提供良好的教育,同时也要投人大量的时间来抚养他们。因此,女性在生育问题上犹豫是因为她们必须投人更多的时间和金钱,以及承受身体和精神压力。故选C。

        14.[考点]事实细节题

        【精析】A题干大意是:女性生完孩子后在工作场所会遇到什么?根据倒数第四段第一句“...working mothers get lower salaries compared with men even 20 years after giving birth…”可知,在丹麦,即使在生完孩子20年后,在职母亲的薪水也低于男性,所以A项正确。根据倒数第四段第二句“While a longer paid maternity leave may protect women from being dismissed or demoted, such women are still ignored when it comes to promotion and increments.”可知,虽然较长的带薪产假可以保护女性不被解雇或降职,但在晋升和加薪方面,这些女性仍然被忽视,所以B、C、D三项错误。故选A。

        15.[考点] 事实细节题

        【精析】C题干大意是:如果男性承担起他们那部分的社会和家庭责任,可能会发生什么?根据最后一段最后两句“Thus men have to shoulder their part of the social and familial responsibilities to promote gender equality.It will not only promote domestic harmony but also help increase the fertility rate.”可知,男人必须承担他们那部分的社会和家庭责任,以促进性别平等,这不仅能促进家庭和睦,还有助于提高生育率。故选 C。

        Passage 4

        16.[考点] 事实细节题

        【精析】D题干大意是:为什么人们现在卖东西容易了?根据第一段第二句“Using websites and social media groups that facilitate the buying and selling of second-hand goods,it is now easier…”可知,利用网站和社交媒体,人们买卖东西更加便利了,即现在有做买卖的在线平台让人们卖东西更容易了。故选D

        17.【考点] 事实细节题

        【精析】B题干大意是:下列选项中,哪个是我们有可能未充分利用的?根据第二段最后一句...parents are now able to sell on those hardly worn baby clothes that their children have outgrown.….”和第三段第一句"..making use of those underutilized resources."可知,现在父母可以转卖掉那些孩子们穿不下的或几乎不穿的婴儿衣服,而企业正在试图利用那些未充分利用的资源来获益,即婴儿不再穿、或不能再穿的衣服未被充分利用。A项(寒冷国家的一件厚大衣) C项(最新款智能手机)和D项(家里的新橱柜)都是可被充分利用的东西,这三项均不符合题意。故选B

        18.[考点] 事实细节题

        【精析】C题干大意是:为什么人们参与共享经济?根据第二段第一句“These popular online platforms are providing a chance for people to make a quick fortune.”和第三段第一句“Businesses have also caught on to the profitability of the sharing economy and are seeking to gain from making use of those underutilized resources.”可知,这些流行的在线平台正在为人们提供快速发财的机会,企业也已经抓住了共享经济的盈利能力,并正在试图利用那些未被充分利用的资源来获益。由此可知,人们参与共享经济是想发财。故选C。

        19.[考点]事实细节题

        【精析】A 题干大意是:当不受监管的个人卖东西给别人时,可能会引起问题,因为。根据最后一段第二句“...unregulated individuals do not have to follow certain regulations and this can lead to poorer and inconsistent quality of goods and services and a higher risk of fraud.”可知,不受监管的个人不必遵守某些规定,这可能会导致产品和服务的质量较差且不一致,还会增加欺诈风险。由此可知,不受监管的个人卖东西给他人时,可能会引起问题,因为他们销售的东西可能质量较差。故选A。

        20.[考点]主旨大意题

        【精析】C题干大意是:这篇文章合适的标题可能是什么?通读全文可知,第一段介绍了共享经济;第二、三段分别阐述了个人和公司如何参与共享经济;最后一段指出了共享经济可能存在的问题及其总体上对于环境的影响。由此可推知,C项(共享经济的兴起)最适合作本文的标题。A项(消费主义社会)、B项(需要钱的父母)和D项(我们为什么买不需要的东西)均不能概括文章内容。故选C。(公众号:山西职教收集整理)

        Part Ⅱ Cloze

        21.[考点] 词义辨析题

        【精析】C offer:建议,出价;policeman:警察;guide:向导,导游;worker:工人,员工。根据句意“我们雇了一个当地的向导”可知,选C。

        22.[考点] 逻辑推理题

        【精析】c根据上下文可推知,这位向导是一个有礼貌的绅士。poor:差的,贫穷的;adequate:足够的;good:好的,优质的,good manners意为“有礼貌”;no;没有,无。故选C。

        23.[考点] 词义辨析题

        【精析】 B 根据下文中的drank our beer 可知,此处为beer(啤酒)的原词复现,表达的是“天气如此热。以至我们以喝凉啤酒为乐”。water:水;soda:苏打汽水;juice:果汁。故选B。24.[考点]逻辑推理题

        【精析】B下文提到“我们什么也没说,喝着啤酒,可怜的Wang看着”。由此可推知,Wang并没有喝啤酒,他拒绝了作者的邀请。accept:接受(建议、邀请等);refuse:拒绝,回绝;oppose:反对(计划、政策等),抵制;agree;同意,赞成。故选B。

        25.[考点]语法结构题和逻辑推理题

        【精析】A分析句子结构可知,空处为because引导的从句的谓语,所以首先排除CD两项。根据下文可推知,Wang这一次接受了喝啤酒的邀请。accept:接受(建议、邀请等);refuse:拒绝,回绝。故选A。

        26.[考点] 语法结构题

        【精析】C句意:当我看到Wang事实上很喜欢啤酒的时候,我才想起来问他,在中国接受别人的第一次邀请是否并不礼貌。分析句子结构并结合句意可知,空处应用when(当……的时候),引导一个时间状语从句。that 不能单独引导状语从句:if:如果,引导条件状语从句;since:自……以来,由于,引导时间和原因状语从句。故选 C。

        27.[考点] 语法结构题

        【精析】 B句意参考上题解析。分析句子结构并结合句意可知,空处引导一个宾语从句,从句成分完整,但意义不完整,缺少"是否”的含义,所以应用whether引导。it不能引导从句;whatever:任何事物,在名词性从句中作主语、宾语等成分;to不能引导从句。故选B。28.[考点]词义辨析题

        【精析】A句意参考第26题解析。first:第一;second第二;third;第三;last;最后的,上一个的。根据句意可知,选A。

        29.[考点] 词语搭配

        【精析】D句意:这位年轻的女士刚到美国勤工俭学一年。arrive in为固定搭配,意为“到达,抵达”,符合句意。come,get常与介词to搭配,表示“到达(某一地点)”;reach意为“到达,抵达”时为及物动词,其后可直接跟宾语。故选 D。

        30.[考点] 语法结构题

        【精析】B句意:由于主人知道中国人在社交场合有很强的礼貌感,所以他们预计不得不反复劝这位年轻女士随意享用晚餐的菜品。分析句子结构并结合句意可知,空处应用Since(由于),引导一个原因状语从句。but;但是,然而,为并列连词,不能引导从句;if:如果,引导条件状语从句;hence:因此,由此,为副词,不能引导从句。故选B。

        31.[考点]词义辨析题

        【精析】A 句意参考上题解析。strong:强的,强大的;no:没有,无;weak;虚弱的;many:许多。根据句意可知,选A。

        32.[考点]词义辨析题

        【精析】D句意参考第30题解析。enforce:强迫,迫使;argue:争论,争辩;help:帮助;urge:敦促,力劝。根据句意可知,选D。另外,根据第二段最后一句中的urged 可知,此处为其原词复现。

        33.[考点]词语搭配题

        【精析】C 句意参考第30题解析。help oneself to sth.为固定搭配,意为“为自己取用某物”,符合句意。故选C。

        34.[考点] 词义辨析题

        【精析】D句意:他们被告知在中国,拒绝别人提供的食物被认为是礼貌的,进一步拒绝则是更加礼貌的。require:(v.)需要,要求;reuse:(v.&n)再使用;record(v.&n)记录,记载;refusal:(n)拒绝,回绝。分析句子结构并结合空后的of可知,空处应用名词;再根据句意可知,选D。

        35.[考点]词义辨析题

        【精析】B句意:一些跨文化培训师建议西方的聚会主人主动提出三次(邀请),以便让中国客人能够礼貌拒绝前两次,再被劝说接受第三次。give:给,交给;offer:提供(东西或机会),主动提出; help:帮助;tell:告诉。根据句意可知,选B。

        36.[考点] 词义辨析题

        【精析】C句意参考上题解析。first:第一;second第二;third第三;only唯一的。根据句意可知,选C。

        37.[考点] 逻辑推理题

        【精析】B上文提到,拒绝别人提供的食物是礼貌的,中国客人一般会拒绝前两次邀请;下文提到,这位年轻女士进门直接表示希望对方不要介意自己吃得多。由此可推知,上下文之间为转折关系。in a word:简言之,常用于总结上文;however:然而,表示转折;in addition:此外,表示补充说明; therefore:因此,表示因果。故选B。

        38.[考点] 语法结构题

        【精析】C句意:然而,这位年轻女士进门后说的第一句话是:“噢,我要饿死了。如果我吃得很多,希望你们不要介意!”分析句子结构并结合句意可知,空处应用if(如果),引导一个条件状语从句。that不能单独引导状语从句;whether 常与or not搭配,引导让步状语从句,意为“不管是否……”;so:因此,所以,为表示因果关系的并列连词,不能引导从句。故选 C。

        39.[考点] 词义辨析题

        【精析】B句意:与美国主人的预期相反,她毫不犹豫地自取食物,完全不需劝说。imagination:想象力;expectation:预期,希望;impression:印象,感想;illusion:幻想,错觉。根据句意可知,选B。

        40.[考点]语法结构题

        【精析】 C hesitate to do….为固定用法,意为“犹豫做……”。故选C。

        Part Ⅲ True or False

        41【精析】A 根掴第一段内容和第二段第一句“You were probably right if you thought that was caused by a lack of sleep.”可知,人们都曾感到自己的头脑在一夜无眠后会变得混乱,无论如何努力都无法想出一个原创的想法。如果你认为这是由睡眠不足引起的,那你可能是对的,即头脑的混乱可能是由睡眠不足引起的,所以本题正确。

        42.【精析】 B 根据第三段"The results? The wide-awake students did well on the tests. The tired students did poorly...creative thinking only.“可知,测验的结果是,清醒的学生表现很好,疲惫的学生表现很差虽然研究已经表明,疲劳的人在常规思维测试中表现不错比如简单的加法。但Home博士只测试创造性思维。由此可知,疲惫的人在常规思维方面表现不错,比如会简单的加法,但在创造性思维方面表现很差。本题的意思是“疲惫的人可以做任何事,除了告诉别人他们的名字”与文章内容不符所以本题错误。

        43.【精析】 A 根据第四段第一句"As part of his study,he offered an amount of money as a reward to the tired students if they did well.”可知,作为研究的一部分,他提供了一笔钱作为对疲惫学生的奖励,如果他们做得好的话,即Home博士向疲惫学生提供许多金钱的目的是鼓励他们做得更好,所以本题正确。

        44.【精析】A 根据第四段倒数第二、三句“Dr.Home believes that the part of the brain where thinking takes place may get worn out during waking hours. Sleep may help to repair the brain overnight.”可知, Home 博士认为,大脑中负责思考的部分可能会在醒着的时候变得疲惫,睡眠可以帮助大脑在一夜之间修复,所以本题正确。

        45.【精析】 B 根据最后一段“This study gives people something to think about, especially people like hospital workers and airplane pilots. who must stay awake all night and then make emergency decisions.”可知,这项研究带给人们一些思考,尤其是像医院工作人员和飞行员这样的人们,他们必须彻夜未眠,然后做出紧急决定。本题的意思是“读完这篇文章后,学生们的作业可能会得到更好的指导”,在文中并未提及,所以本题错误。(公众号:山西职教收集整理)

        Part Ⅳ Translation

        Section A

        46.【精析】 A 分析句子结构可知,本句中 without the least hesitation作状语,可译为“毫不犹豫地”;accepted the terms 可译为“接受了这些条款”。故选A

        47.【精析】C分析句子结构可知,本句含有一个省略关系代词that 或which 的定语从句。The film we saw last night 可译为“我们昨天晚上看的那部电影”;nothing but可译为“只有,的确”。故选C。

        48.【精析】B 分析句子结构可知,本旬含有一个when引导的时间状语从句。There is no such thing as可译为“没有……(那样的事情)”;stupid question 可译为“愚蠢的问题”。故选 B。

        49.【精析】D 分析句子结构可知,本句含有一个Every time引导的时间状语从句。Every time 可译为“每当”;introduces 可译为“介绍”;local culture 可译为“当地的文化”。故选D

        50.【精析】 D 分析句子结构可知,本句是一个but连接的并列句,前后两个分句之间是转折关系。On foot 可译为“徒步”;runners 可译为“跑步者”;other modes have also been used可译为“也用了其他的交通工具”。故选 D。

        Section B

        51.【精析】E根据中文段落中第一处画线部分“发明”可知,此处应用was coined。故选E。52.【精析】H根据中文段落中第二处画线部分“越来越”可知,此处应用increasingly。故选H。

        53.【精析】D 根据中文段落中第三处画线部分“年轻的一代”可知,此处应用 the younger generation故选D。

        54.【精析】J 根据中文段落中第四处画线部分“一种民族认同感”可知,此处应用a sense of national identity。故选J。

        55.【精析】 F根据中文段落中第五处画线部分“传统服装”可知,此处应用traditional clothing。故选F。

        Section C

        56. Please pick up Professor Li at eight o’clock tomorrow morning.

        57. His exam results were very disappointing.

        58. Which one do you prefer,Chinese food or Western food?

        59. At the conference,the government advocated equal employment opportunities for men and women.

        60. There are several children swimming in the swimming pool.

        Part V Error Correction

        61.【翻译】 不要害怕和与你不同的人交谈。

        【精析】 D应改为from。be different from 为固定搭配,意为“与……不同”,所以应把with 改为 from。

        62.【翻译】这是我读过的最有意思的书。

        【精析】B 应改为that或把which 去掉。分析句子结构可知,指物的先行词 book后面是一个定语从句,且先行词被形容词最高级 the most interesting修饰,关系代词应用that,而不用which,that 在定语从句中作have ever read的宾语,也可以省略,所以应把which 改为that 或把which 去掉。

        63.【翻译】 如果我是你,我就不会浪费很多时间在网上聊天。

        【精析】A 应改为were。分析句子结构可知。本句包含一个If 引导的非真实条件句。根据句意和主句中的 wouldn’t be wasting可知,本句是对现在情况的假设,因此从句的谓语动词应用过去式(动词用were),所以应把am改为were。

        64.【翻译】 你住的那个城镇叫什么名字?

        【精析】D 应改为which分析句子结构可知town后面是一个定语从句,修饰指物的先行词the town,且系代在从句作介in语。当系代在从句中作介词的宾语且介在关系词之前时,关系代词应用which,且which 不可省略,所以应把that改为which。

        65.【翻译】我盼望着7月18日在你的办公室见到你。

        【精析】 B 应改为seeing。look forward to doing sth.为固定用法,意为“盼望着做某事”,其中动名词(短语)作宾语,所以应把sec改为seeing。

        66.【翻译】 现在汤姆和他的狗一起住在一个小公寓里,靠社会保障金勉强过活。

        【精析】B应改为with。with:(prep.)和……在一起,和,同;and;(conj.)和,与,同。根据句意可知,“和他的狗一起”在句中作伴随状语,应用介词 with,所以应把and 改为 with。67.【翻译】 中国有成千上万个岛屿,其中最大的是台湾岛。

        【精析】D 应改为which。分析句子结构可知,逗号前后是两个独立的句子,不符合英语语法规则。根据句意和画线单词可知,可将逗号后的部分改成一个非限制性定语从句,修饰指物的先行词 thousands of islands,此时应用 the largest of which 引导从句,其中关系代词 which 指代先行词 thousands of islands,所以应把them改为which

        68.【翻译】 有很多报道称,人们在退出社交媒体后感到孤独且隔绝。

        【精析】C应改为feeling。分析句子结构可知,people和when之间为非谓语动词短语,作people的后置定语。根据句意可知,people和feel(感到)之间是逻辑上的主谓关系,且句中没有明显的表示时间先后顺序的词,应用现在分词的一般式,表示主动,所以应把feel 改为feeling。(公众号:山西职教收集整理)

        69.【翻译】 周二上演的舞狮是为了庆祝中国新年的最后一天。

        【精析】B 应改为performed。分析句子结构可知,The lion dance 和is之间为非谓语动词短语,作 The lion dance 的后置定语。根据句意可知,The lion dance和perform(表演)之间是逻辑上的动宾关系,应用过去分词,表示被动,所以应把perform改为performed。

        70.【翻译】 我对约翰的第一印象是他挺聪明,而且长得不错。

        【精析】A 应改为impression。根据句意和句中第一个was 可知,was之前的主语应是单数形式,所以应把impressions改为impression。

        Part V Writing

        [范文]

        Failure Is the Mother of Success

        As the proverb says,failure is the mother of success.Usually,people make many mistakes and fail many times before achieving success. When faced with failures,some people might submit to them,and give up their efforts. However,other people learn from failures,and they try over and over again until they succeed.

        I remembered I used to fail in my English vocabulary tests when I was in high school. I had difficulty in memorizing words. I almost decided to give up English,but was encouraged by one of my classmates who had kept pushing me to memorize words. At the end of the semester,I found I had finished the vocabulary book, which became my motivation for studying English.

        Nobody is born as a genius for achieving success.Success tends to arrive after a series of trials and failures. It is likely that we have to face some failures from time to time.Dealing with them correctly is the key to success.

        

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